Vaccines are among the world’s most cost-effective health intervention tools, and they prevent millions of deaths each year. They also help control outbreaks of endemic and pandemic diseases, reducing health inequalities.
Traditionally, vaccine safety is monitored through clinical trials of new vaccines before they are licensed. However, there is an increasing need for surveillance after a vaccine is licensed and used in public. Using large health system databases from multiple countries can help identify rare events that may not have been placed in pre-licensure studies.
Vaccine Adverse Events
Vaccines are used worldwide at very high rates to help prevent and control outbreaks of infectious diseases. They undergo a rigorous scientific research process before being approved for use.
Despite this, vaccines do have side effects. These can be very mild and temporary or severe and long-lasting. They are also sometimes linked to other medical conditions.
These side effects are called adverse events following immunization (AEFI). They may happen when people receive a vaccination, which can be related to the vaccine.
Adverse events occur when the vaccine recipient develops a health problem, such as fever and body ache, or a severe illness, like an allergic reaction or a seizure.
Adverse events are proactively monitored during the development of vaccines, and they are reported to regulatory authorities in the US. Causality Assessment Committees then review these reports at divisional and national levels.
In addition, many businesses have access to a wide range of cold storage monitoring tools, including selections appropriate for your demands regarding vaccine monitoring.
Vaccines boost your immune system to help you fight disease-causing bacteria or viruses. Your immune system comprises cells and proteins that detect foreign substances (like bacteria or viruses) and attack or ‘neutralize’ them.
Your immune system also produces antibodies specific to the pathogen and binds to it to stop it from entering or infecting your cells. When you receive a vaccine, it triggers your immune system to produce more antibodies and memory cells so that your immune system can quickly react the next time the bacteria invade.
Despite the effectiveness of vaccine monitoring, outbreaks can still occur. These are often caused by low vaccination coverage and a decline in public confidence in vaccines.
Vaccine effectiveness refers to how well a vaccine prevents disease among vaccinated people. It is measured by comparing the number of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in the vaccinated group to those who did not receive the vaccine.
Efficacy is measured in clinical trials, where participants are carefully selected to ensure that no one has a medical condition or is taking drugs. In addition, the study is designed so that participants can receive the vaccine in an environment similar to real-life situations.
However, it is essential to note that clinical trial results cannot always be used to predict how effective a vaccine will perform in the real world. This is because real-world effectiveness can differ based on age, health issues, waning immunity, and the introduction of new strains.
This is especially important for measles, whooping cough, and Hib bacterial meningitis. These diseases are often severe and require high rates of vaccination to control.
Vaccines have helped to save a considerable number of lives and prevent many other people from becoming infected. But they aren’t perfect – no medicine is, and germs can still make you sick even after vaccination.
Nevertheless, vaccines are a critical tool in public health. They help protect people against diseases, especially when given at a young age.
A vaccine’s efficacy depends on the immune response’s strength that occurs after vaccination. However, there are a small but measurable proportion of immunized individuals whose bodies cannot mount a protective immune response to the particular strains of viruses in the vaccine.
Fortunately, this is rare and often unrelated to chronic or immunosuppressant conditions. But it’s important to note that a reductionist paradigm can equate any adverse event reported after vaccination with a vaccine-induced disease, putting the burden of resolving these cases on the health system.